எங்கும் எதிலும் கலப்படம்! கண்டுபிடிக்க எளிய வழிகள்

“நான் சூப்பர் மார்க்கெட்டில்தான் பொருட்களை வாங்குகிறேன். கலப்படம் என்ற பேச்சுக்கே இடம் இல்லை” என்று சிலர் கூலாகச் சொல்வார்கள். அதிக விலைகொடுத்து வாங்கினால் கலப்படம் இருக்காது என்பதும் பலரின் நம்பிக்கை. உண்மையில் பாலில் தொடங்கி பனீர் வரை  எங்கும் எதிலும் எப்போதும் கலப்படம்தான். மக்கள் அதிகம் பயன்படுத்தும் பொருட்கள் மற்றும் பிராண்டுகளில் சர்வசாதாரணமாகக் கலப்படங்களைச் செய்கிறார்கள் கலப்பட மன்னர்கள். தரம் குறைந்த பொருட்களை வாங்கிவந்து, செயற்கை நிறம் கலந்தும் பாலீஷ் செய்தும் தரமான பொருட்களைப் போல விற்கிறார்கள்.

குறைவான விலை என்பதாலும், நம்மை எல்லாம் ஒன்றும் செய்யாது எனும் அசட்டு நம்பிக்கை காரணமாகவும் கலப்படப் பொருட்கள் விற்பனை எந்தத் தடையும் இன்றி நடந்துகொண்டே இருக்கிறது.

கலப்படம் என்பது, ஆரோக்கியத்தை அசைத்துப்பார்த்து, உயிருக்கே உலைவைத்துவிடும் மரண வியாபாரம். அது ஒரு சமூக அநீதி எனும் புரிதலும் விழிப்புஉணர்வும் விற்பவர்களுக்கும் தேவை. நுகர்வோருக்கும் தேவை.

கலப்படத்தைக் கண்டறிய…

டீ  – கடைகளில் பயன்படுத்திய டீ தூள் கசடை (Tea dust) குறைவான விலைக்கு வாங்கி, அதை வெயிலில் உலர்த்தி, சிவப்பு நிறம் சேர்த்து விற்கின்றனர். குறைவான விலையில் கிடைக்கும் டீ தூள்களில், இந்த சிவப்பு நிறம் கலக்கப்படுகிறது. சாதாரண ஃபில்டர் பேப்பரில் டீ தூளைக் கொட்டி, நான்கு துளிகள் நீர் விட்டால், சிவப்பு நிறம் தனியே பிரிவது தெரியும். குறிப்பாக, ஊர்களை மையப்படுத்தி விற்கும் ஸ்பெஷல் டீ தூள்கள் பெரும்பாலும் கலப்படங்களே.

கடுகு – தரமான கடுகை, கைகளில் வைத்து அழுத்திப்பார்த்தால் அதன் உட்புறம் மஞ்சளாக இருக்கும். கசகசா வகையைச் சார்ந்த அர்ஜிமோன் விதைகள் கலக்கப்பட்டிருந்தால், கைகளில் நசுங்கும்போது, அதன் உட்புறம் வெள்ளையாக இருக்கும்.

மஞ்சள் தூள் – மஞ்சள் தூளில், ஸ்டார்ச் பவுடர் மற்றும் மெட்டானில் எல்லோ எனும் ரசாயனம்  கலக்கப்படுகின்றன. அரை ஸ்பூன் மஞ்சள்தூளை, 20 மி.லி இளஞ்சூடான நீரில் கலந்து, அதில் இரண்டு துளிகள் ஹைட்ரோ குளோரிக் அமிலத்தைச் சேர்க்க வேண்டும். இளம் சிவப்பு, ஊதா நிறத்தில் நீர் மாறினால், அதில் மெட்டானில் எல்லோ கலந்திருப்பதை உறுதி செய்யலாம்.

பச்சைமிளகாய், பச்சைப் பட்டாணி – பச்சைமிளகாய், குடமிளகாய் போன்றவை அதிகப் பச்சையாகத் தெரிவதற்காக, மாலசைட் கிரீன் (Malachite green) எனும் ரசாயனத்தில் முக்கி விற்கப்படுகின்றன. இதேபோல, உலர் பட்டாணி ஊறவைக்கப்பட்டு, மாலசைட் கிரீன் கலந்து ஃப்ரெஷ்ஷாக இருப்பதுபோல் விற்கப்படுகிறது. இவற்றை வெந்நீரில் போட்டதும் பச்சை நிறம் வெளியேறினால், அதில் மாலசைட் கிரீன் கலந்திருக்கிறது என்பதைத் தெரிந்துகொள்ளலாம்.

பட்டை – பட்டையில், கேசியா (Casia), சுருள் பட்டை (Cinnamon) எனும் இரு வகைகள் உள்ளன. இதில், சுருள் பட்டையில்தான் சத்துக்கள் உள்ளன. கேசியா பட்டையில் சாதாரண மரப்பட்டைகள் நிறம் சேர்த்துக் கலக்கப்
படுகின்றன. ஓரிரண்டு  பட்டையைக் கசக்கிப் பார்த்தால், கைகளில் எந்த நிறமும் ஒட்டக் கூடாது.

மிளகு – பப்பாளி விதைகளைக் காயவைத்தால், மிளகு போலத் தெரியும். அதை, மிளகில் சேர்த்து விற்கின்றனர். அதேபோல, பழைய மிளகில் மினரல் ஆயில் எனப்படும் பெட்ரோலியப் பொருள் கலக்கப்பட்டு, மெருகேற்றப்படுகிறது. மிளகு பார்ப்பதற்குப் பளபளப்புடன் மின்னக் கூடாது. முகர்ந்துபார்த்தால்  கெரசின் வாடை  அடிக்கக் கூடாது. கண்ணாடி டம்ளரில் 50 மி.லி தண்ணீரை ஊற்றி, அதில் மிளகைப் போட வேண்டும். மூழ்கினால் அது உண்மையான மிளகு, மிதந்தால் அது பப்பாளி விதை.

சீரகம் – சீரகத்தில், குதிரைச் சாணம் சேர்க்கப்படுகிறது. தவிர, அடுப்புக் கரியும் சேர்க்கின்றனர். சீரகத்தைத் தண்ணீரில் போட்டால், சாணம் கரைந்துவிடும். சீரகத்தைக் கையில் வைத்துத் தேய்க்கும்போது, கறுப்பாக மாறினால், அதில் அடுப்புக் கரி சேர்க்கப்பட்டிருக்கிறது. அதேபோல, சீரகம் போன்ற தோற்றம்கொண்ட ‘சதகுப்ப’ எனும் பொருளையும் சேர்த்து விற்பனை செய்கின்றனர். இதைப் பரிசோதனைக்கூடத்தில் மட்டுமே கண்டறிய முடியும்.

டீலக்ஸ் தனியா – தனியா அடர்பழுப்பாக இருக்கும். ஆனால், டீலக்ஸ் தனியா என்பதை வெள்ளையாக மாற்ற, சல்பர் டை ஆக்சைட் சேர்க்கப்படுகிறது. வெள்ளையாக்கப்பட்ட தனியாவைத் தவிர்த்துவிடலாம். அதுபோல, ஒரு ஸ்பூன் தனியா தூளில் தண்ணீர் விடும்போது, மேலாக தூசு போல படிந்தால் அதில் மரத் தூள் கலந்திருக்கலாம்.

ஜவ்வரிசி – மஞ்சள் நிறமாக இருக்கும் ஜவ்வரிசி டினோபால் போன்ற, பளீர் வெள்ளை நிறத்தைத் தரும் ரசாயனங்களால் தீட்டப்
படுகிறது. சிறிது மஞ்சளாக இருக்கும் ஜவ்வரிசியைப் பயன்படுத்துங்கள்.

பால் – அதிகாலை கறக்கும் பால் சில்லிங் சென்டருக்கு போகும் வரையில் கெட்டுப்போகாமல் இருக்க, யூரியா, காஸ்டிக் சோடா, டிடர்ஜென்ட் போன்றவையும் சேர்க்கப்படுகின்றன. பாலையும் தண்ணீரையும் 10 மி.லி அளவில் சமமாகக் கலக்கும்போது, நுரை வந்தால் அதில் டிடர்ஜென்ட் கலந்திருக்கலாம். மேலும், அருகில் விற்கும் பால்காரரிடம் பால் வாங்குவதே கலப்படங்களிலிருந்து தப்பிக்க எளிய வழி.

மிளகாய்த் தூள் – இதில், புற்றுநோயை உண்டாக்கும் சூடான் டை கலக்கப்படுகிறது. ஒரு கிளாஸ் தண்ணீரில், ஒரு ஸ்பூன் மிளகாய்த் தூளைக் கலக்குங்கள். அதில் பளீர் சிவப்பு வண்ணம் வெளிவந்தால், அதில் சிவப்பு வண்ணம் கலந்திருக்கலாம்.

தேங்காய் எண்ணெய் – தேங்காய் எண்ணெயைக் கண்ணாடி பாட்டிலில் ஊற்றி ஃப்ரிட்ஜில் வையுங்கள். தடிமனான திக்கான படிமம் எண்ணெயின் மேல் படிந்தால், அது சுத்தமான தேங்காய் எண்ணெய். நீர்த்த நிலையில் அப்படியே இருந்தால், அதில் மலிவான எண்ணெய்கள் கலக்கப்பட்டிருக்கின்றன.

 

தேன் – பஞ்சைத் தேனில் நனைத்து, நெருப்பில் காட்டும்போது, பஞ்சு எரிந்தால் நல்ல தேன். எரியும்போது சடசடவென சத்தம் வந்தால், அது கலப்படத் தேன். தேனைத் தண்ணீரில் விட்டால், கரையாமல் அடி வரை சென்று தங்கும். கரைந்தால், அது வெல்லப்பாகு.

காபி பொடி – ஒரு கிளாஸ் தண்ணீரில் காபி பொடியைப் போட்டதும், காபி பொடி மேலே மிதக்கும். சிக்கரி கலந்திருந்தால், நீரில் மூழ்கும்.

எண்ணெய் – எண்ணெயை ரீஃபைண்ட் செய்ய, பல ரசாயனங்கள் சேர்க்கப்படுகின்றன. இந்த எண்ணெயைப் பயன்படுத்துவது உடல்நலத்துக்கு ஆபத்தை விளைவிக்கும். செக்கில் ஆட்டப்பட்ட எண்ணெய் வாங்கிப் பயன்படுத்தலாம். எண்ணெயில், 20 சதவிகிதம் அளவுக்கு வேறு ஒரு எண்ணெயைக் கலக்கலாம். அரசின் இந்த அனுமதி, பல கலப்படங்களுக்குக் காரணமாக இருக்கிறது.

தோசை மாவு – மாவு புளிக்காமல் இருக்க, கால்சியம் சிலிகேட் சேர்க்கப்படுகிறது. இதில் சுகாதாரமற்ற தண்ணீர் சேர்ப்பதால் இ-கோலை பாக்டீரியா (மலக்கழிவில் இருக்கும் கிருமி) இருக்கும். பல நோய்களை உருவாக்கும் கிருமி இது. எனவே, வீட்டில் மாவு அரைத்துச் சாப்பிடுவதே நல்லது.

பனீர் – ஒரு கப் தண்ணீரில் ஒரு பனீர் துண்டைப் போட்டுக் கொதிக்கவிடுங்கள். ஆறியதும், சில துளிகள் அயோடின் சொல்யூஷன் கலக்கவும். பனீர் நீல நிறமாக மாறினால், அது கலப்படம். பனீர் தயாரிக்கப்பட்ட பாலில் கஞ்சி, மாவுப் பொருட்கள் (Starch) கலந்திருக்கலாம்.

நெய் – வனஸ்பதி அல்லது வேகவைத்து மசித்த உருளைக்கிழங்கு கலந்திருக்கும். இதைப் பரிசோதனை மையங்களில் மட்டுமே கண்டுபிடிக்க முடியும். வெண்ணெயை வாங்கிக் காய்ச்சுவது நல்லது.

யாரிடம் புகார் செய்யலாம்?

தமிழகத்தில் சென்னை, தஞ்சாவூர், சேலம், கோவை, மதுரை, திருநெல்வேலி ஆகிய இடங்களில் பரிசோதனை மையங்கள் உள்ளன. வாங்கும் பொருட்களால், ஏதேனும் பாதிப்புகள் ஏற்பட்டால், அந்த ஊரில் உள்ள உணவுப் பாதுகாப்பு அலுவலரிடம் புகார் கொடுக்கலாம். எந்தப் பொருளால் உடல்நலக் கேடு ஏற்பட்டதோ, அந்த இடத்துக்குச் சென்று, அந்த உணவின் சாம்பிளைப் பரிசோதனை செய்வர். ரிப்போர்ட்டில் கலப்படம் எனத் தெரிந்தால், விற்றவர் மற்றும் தயாரித்தவர் மேல் வழக்குப் போடப்படும். பாதிக்கப்பட்டவருக்கு நிவாரணமும் பரிசோதனைக்குச் செலவான பணமும் திரும்ப வழங்கப்படும். நுகர்வோருக்கு உண்டான அலைச்சல், மன உளைச்சலுக்குத் தகுந்த தொகை தரப்படும்.

பாதிப்புகள்

உணவுப் பொருட்களில் சேர்க்கப்படும் அனுமதிக்கப்படாத வண்ணங்கள் புற்றுநோய்க்குக் காரணமாகலாம். அர்ஜிமோன் விதைகள், பெட்ரோலிய பொருளான மினரல் ஆயில் போன்றவையும் புற்றுநோயை ஏற்படுத்தக்கூடியதே. ஆப்பிள் மேல் பூசப்படும் மெழுகில் ‘லெட்’ இருக்கிறது. இது வாந்தி, வயிற்றுப்போக்கில் தொடங்கி நரம்பு மண்டலத்தையே பாதிக்கலாம். உணவால் ஏற்படும் கழிவுகளைச் சிறுநீரகமும் கல்லீரலும் சுத்தம் செய்கின்றன. வீரியமுள்ள ரசாயனங்களால் இந்த இரண்டு உறுப்புகளும் பாதித்து, செயலிழந்து போக நேரிடும். எப்போதோ ஓரிரு முறை கலப்பட உணவுகளைச் சாப்பிட்டால் பிரச்னை இல்லை. மாதங்கள், ஆண்டுகள் எனத் தொடர்ந்து சாப்பிடும்போது, உடல்நலம் கெடுவது உறுதி. உடலை உருக்குலைக்கும் நோய்களுக்கான வாசலும் இதுவே.

Food Adulteration – FSSAI

Adulteration is a great menace to the public health and economic loss as well

Adulteration is the debasement,of a substance by deliberately adding something not ordinarily a part of it. A food adulterant is any
material which is added to food or any substance which adversely affects the nature, substance and quality of the food.
Food adulteration takes into account not only the intentional addition or substitution or abstraction of

substances which adversely affect the nature, substances and quality of foods, but also their incidental contamination during the period of growth, harvesting, storage, processing, transport and distribution. Commonly adulterated foods Any commodity that is either expensive or sells more is the target for adulteration. Foods which are in a liquid, powder, minced or paste form,are more likely to be adulterated, foods sold loose by the retailer is also more common as compared to the packaged foods.Commonly adulterated foods are

food grains like wheat, rice, pulses and their products ,edible oils and fats ,spices like chilli, turmeric, cinnamon, pepper etc., milk and milk products, coffee and tea, sweetening agent, non- alcoholic beverages and
miscellaneous items like confectionary, jams, sauces, ice creams and prepared foods items like sweets etc. Adulteration is a great menace to the public health and economic loss as well.

The FSS (Prohibition and Restriction on Sales) Regulation 2011, prohibits the sale of certain admixtures and the FSS ( Food product standards and food additives) Regulation 2011 regulates the use of food additives, also specifies the amount which can be added to certain foods in prescribed limits. For Quick Tests for common adulterants Visit our webpage (www.fssai.gov.in) for guidance to test some of the common adulterants in food atthe household as well as at the industry leveL.

QUICK TESTS FOR SOME ADULTERANTS IN FOOD

                                                                                                                     FOOD is essential for nourishment and sustenance of life. Adulteration of food cheats the consumer and can pose serious risk to health in some cases. Food adulteration is thus a punishable offence under the provisions of Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and the Rules made thereunder. Consumer awareness of quality of food and alertness in detecting common types of food adulteration can help in arresting this menance and enable Government to achieve the objective of ‘Health for All by 2000 A.D.*

The purpose of this web site is to give the consumer an opportunity to detect a few common adulterants in food. These tests will simply help the consumers to screen their day-to-day food articles. But for detailed conformatory test and qualification under P.F.A Act the analysis in a laboratory is must.

A simple kit for testing of such adulterants can be made by using apparatus and common reagents, list of which is at Appendix – II.

( 1  ) . M I L K  &  M I L K   P R O D U C T S

Name of Food Article Adulterant

Simple Method for detection of Common Adulterants

Remarks

i. Milk

Water

i. The lactometer reading shall not ordinarily be less than 26.

ii. The presence of water can be detected by putting a drop of milk on a polished slanting surface. The drop of pure milk either stops or flows slowly leaving a white trail behind it, whereas milk adulterated with water will flow immediately without leaving a mark.

Add a few drops of tincture of lodine or lodine solution. Formation of bvlue colour indicates the presence of starch.

    Lactometer is marked in degrees ranging from 0-40.

The test is not valid if skimmed milk or other thickening material is added.

starch

   Add a few drops of tincture of lodine or lodine solution. Formation of blue colour indicates the presence of starch.

Removal
of fat

The lactometer reading will go above 26 while the milk apparently remains thick.

ii. Khoa and its products Starch

Boil a small quantity of sample with some water, cool and add a few drops of lodine solution. Formation of blue colour indicates the presence of starch.

iii. Chhana or Panner Starch

Boil a small quantity of sample with some water, cool and add a few drops of lodine solution. Formation of blue colour indicates the presence of starch.

iv. Ghee Vanaspati or MargarineMashed Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes and other starches.

Take about one tea spoon full of melted sample of Ghee with equal quantity of concentrated Hydrochloric acid in a stoppered test tube and add to it a pinch of sugar. Shake well for one minute and let it stand for five minutes. Appearance of crimson colour in lower (acid) layer shows presence of Vanaspati or Margarine.

The presence of mashed potatoes and sweet potatoes in a sample of Ghee can easily be detected by adding a few drops of lodine, when lodine, which is brownish in colour turns to blue then mashed potatoes/ sweet potatoes/other starches are present.

The test is specific for sesame oil which is compulsorily added to Vanaspati and Margarne. Some coal tar colours also give a positive test.

If the test is positive i.e. red colour develops only by adding strong Hydrochloric acid (without adding crystals of sugar) then the sample is adulterated with coal tar dye. If the crimson or red colour develops after adding and shaking with sugar, then alone Vanaspati or Margarine is present.

v. Butter Vanaspati or margarine

Mashed Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes and other starches.

Take about one tea spoon full of melted sample of Ghee with equal quantity of concentrated Hydrochloric acid in a stoppered test tube and add to it a pinch of sugar. Shake wel for one minute and let it stand for five minutes. Appearance of crimson colour in lower (acid) layer shows presence of Vanaspati or Margarine.

The presence of mashed potatoes and sweet potatoes in a sample of Ghee can easily be detected by adding a few drops of lodine, when lodine, which is brownish in colour turns to blue then mashed potatoes/ sweet potatoes/other starches are present.

The test is specific for sesame oil which is compulsorily added to Vanaspati and Margarne. Some coal tar colours also give a positive test.

vi. OILS AND FATS Argemone oil

Take small quantity of oil in a test tube. Add equal quantity of concentrated Nitric acid and shake carefully. Red to reddish brown colour in lower (acid) layer would indicate the presence of Argemone oil.

Colourless (not yellowish) Nitric acid should  be used. Artificial colour if present will usually be a bright shade of colour, generally red or pink. The test may sometimes give misleading result. The test may not respond if the Argemone oil is present in small quantity.

Mineral oil

Take 2 ml of the oil sample and add an equal quantity of N/2 Alcoholic potash. Heat in boiling water bath (dip in boiling water) for about 15 minutes and add 10 ml of water. Any turbidity shows presence of mineral oil.

If mineral oil is present in small quantity this test may not be positive.

Castor oil Take about one ml of the oil, add 10 ml of acedified pertroleum ether and mix well. Add a few drops of ammonium molybdate reagent. lmmediate apprearance of white turbidity indicates the presence of castor oil. If   Castor oil is present in small quantity this test may be positive.

( 2 ) . S W E E T I N G   A G E N T S

Name of Food Article Adulterant

Simple Method for detection of Common Adulterants

Remarks

i. Sugar Chalk powder Dissolve 10 gm of sample in a glass of water, allow to settle. Chalk will settle down at the bottom.
ii. Pithi Sugar Washing soda

Chalk powder

Add few drops of Hydrochloric acid, effervescence (give off bubbles) will indicate the presence of washing soda.

Dissolve 10 gm of sample in a glass of water, allow to settle, chalk will settle down at the bottom

 
iii. Honey Sugar solution A cotton wick dipped in pure honey when lighted with a match stick burns and shows the purity of honey. If adulterated, the presence of water will n ot allow the honey to burn. If it does, it will produce a cracking sound. This test is only for added water.
iv. Sweetmeats, Icecream and beverages Metanil yellow (a non-permitted coal tar colour) Extract colour with luke-warm from food articles. Add few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid. If magenta red colour develops the presence of metanil yellow is indicated.
 

 

 

 

 

Silver foil

Saccharin

Aluminium foil

i. Taste a small quantity. Saccharin leaves a lingering sweetness on tongue for a considerable time and leaves a bitter taste at the end.

ii. Take two spoons of liquid sample or about 5 to 10 gms of solid sample with little quantity of water in a test tube, add few drops of Hydrochloric acid and 10 ml of solvent ether. Shake well. Decant the ether layer into a test tube or a beaker, evaporate the ether spontaneously. Add one drop of water (warm) to the residue and taste. Sweet taste will indicate the presence of saccharin.

Aluminium foil is whitish grey in colour and is readily soluble in concentrated Hydrochloric acid while pure silver foil is not.

See Appendix-II.

( 3 ) . FOODGRAINS AND THEIR PRODUCTS

Name of Food Article Adulterant

Simple Method for detection of Common Adulterants

Remarks

i. Wheat, Rice,
Maize, jawar, Bajra, Chana, Barley etc.
Dust, pebble, stone, straw, weed seeds, damaged grain, weevilled grain, insects, rodent hair and excreta. These may be examined visually to see foreign matter, damaged grains, discoloured grains, insect, rodent contamination etc. Damaged/discoloured grains should be as low as possible since they may be affected by fungal toxins, argemone seeds, Dhatura seeds etc. In moderately excessive amount can result in risk to health. Discard the damaged/ undsirable grains before use.
Ergot (a fungus containing poisonous substance) a. Purple black longer sized grains in Bajra show the presence of Ergots. b. Put some grains in a glass tumbler containing 20 per cent salt solution. Ergot floats over the surface while sound grains settle down.
Dhatura Dhatura seeds are flat with edges with blackish brown colour which can be separted out by close examination.

Kamel Bunt

   The affected wheat kernel have a dull appearance, blackish in colour and rotten fish smell.
Argemone seed Assemble mustard seed but show a protrusion on close examination. The surface ofAgemone seed is grainy and rough while that of mustard seed is smooth.When Mustard seed is pressed in side, it is yellow whereas Argemone seed is white.
ii. Sella Rice (Parboiled Rice) Metanil yellow (a non-permitted coal tar colour) Rub a few grains in the palms of two hands. Yeellow would get reduced or disappear. Add a few drops of dilute Hydrochloric acid to a few rice grains mixed with little water, presence of pink colour indicate presenc of Metanil yellow.
Turmeric (colouring for golden appearance) Take a small amount of sample in a test tube, add some water and shake. Dip Boric acid paper (filter paper dipped in Boric Acid solution) If it turns pink, turmeric is present.

See Appendix-I
iii. Dal whole and spilt Khesari Dal

Clay, stone, gravels, webs, insects, rodent hair and excreta.

i. Khesari dal has edged type appearance showing a slant on one side and square in appearance in contrast to other dals.

ii. Add 50ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid to the sample and keep on simmering water for about 15 minutes. The pink colour developed indicates the present of Khesari dal (1:6 HCl).

Visual examination will detect these adulterants.

The Test is only for Khesari dal (Matenil yellow if present will give a similar colour immediately even without simmering).

Reject if the number of insects is large or if the odour is unpleasant and teste bitter or gritty.

Metanil yellow (a non-permitted coaltar colour) Take 5 gms of the sample with 5ml. of water in a test tube and add a few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid. A pink colour shows presence of Metanil yellow.
iv. Atta Maida, Suji (Rawa) Sand, soil, insects, webs, lumps, rodent hair and excreta.

Iron filings

These can be identified by visual examination.

By moving a magnet through the sample, iron filings can be separated.

v. Besan Khesari Flour Add 50ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid to 10gms. of sample and keep on simmering water for about 15 minutes. The pink colour, if developed, indicates, the presence of Khesari flour. The test is only for Khesari dal (Metanil yellow, if present will give a similar colour even without simmering).

 

( 4 ) . SPICES AND CONDIMENTS

Name of Food Article Adulterant

Simple Method for detection of Common Adulterants

Remarks

i. Whole spices Dirt, dust, straw, insect, damaged seeds, other seeds, rodent hair and excreta. These can be examined visually.
a.Black pepper Papaya seeds Papaya seeds can be separated out from pepper as they are shrunken, oval in shape and greenish brown or brownish black in colour.
Light black pepper Float the sample of black pepper in alcohol (rectified spirit). The mature black pepper beries sink while the papaya seeds and light black pepper float.
Coated with mineral oil Black pepper coated with mineral oil gives Kerosene like smell.
b.Cloves Volatile oil extracted (exhausted cloves) Exhausted cloves can be identified by its small size and shrunken appearance. The characteristic pungent tests of genuine cloves is less pronounced in exhausted cloves.
c. Mustard seed Argemone seed Mustard seeds have a smooth surface. the argemone seed have grainy and rough surface and are black and hence can be separated out by close examination. When Mustard seed is pressed inside it is yellow while for argemone seed it is white. Use magnifying glass for identification.
ii.Powdered spices Added starch

Common Salt

Add a few drops of tincture of lodine or lodine solution. Indication of blue colour shows the presence of starch.

Taste for addition of common salt.

Iodine test for added starch is not applicable for turmeric powder.
a. Turmeric powder Coloured saw dust

Chalk powder or yellow soap stone powder

Take a tea spoon full of turmeric powder in a test tube. Ad a few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid. Instant appearance of pink colour which disappears on dilution with water shows the presence of turmeric. If the colour persists, metanil yellow (an artificial colour) a non-permitted coal tar colour is present.

Take a small quantity of turmeric powder in a test tube containing small quantity of water. Add a few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid, effervescence (give off bubbles) will indicate the presence of chalk or yellow soap stone powder.

This test is only for Metanil yellow.
b. Chillies powder Brick Powder, salt powder or talc powder.

Water soluble coal tar colour

Take a tea spoon full of chillies powder in a glass of water. Coloured water extract will show the presence of articficial colour. Any grittingess that may be felt on rubbing the sediment at the bottom of glass confirms the presence of brick powder/sand, soapy and smooth touch of the white residue at the bottom indicates the presence of soap stone.

Water soluble artificial colour can be detected by sprinkling s small quantity of chillies or turmeric powder on the surface of water contained in a glass tumbler. The water soluble colour will immediately start descending in colour streaks.

This test is only for earthy material.
Oil solube coat tar colour Take 2 gms of the samples in a test tube, add few ml of solvent ether and shake, Decant ether layer into a test tube containing 2ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid (1 ml HCl plus 1ml of water). Shake it, the lower acid layer wil be coloured distinct pink to red indicating presence of oil soluble colour. See also Appendix-I.
iii. Hing Soap stone or other earthy matter Shake little portion of the sample with water and allow to settle. Soap stone or other earthy matter will settle down at the bottom. In compounded hing due to presence of starch, a slight turbid solution, may be produced. However, this will settle down after keeping.
iv. Saffron Dried tendrils of maize cob Genuine saffron will not break easily like artificial. Artificial

( 5 ) . MISCELLANEOUS FOODS

Name of Food Article Adulterant

Simple Method for detection of Common Adulterants

Remarks

Common Salt

Tea Leaves

Coffee

White powdered stone

Exhausted tea or tur or gram dal husk with colour

Iron filings

Chicory

Tamarind seeds powder and date seed powder

saffron is prepared by soaking maize cob in sugar and colouring it with coal tar colour. the colour dissolves in after if artificially coloured. A bit of pure saffron when allowed to dissolved in water will continue to give its saffron colour so long as it lasts.

Stir a spoonful of sample of salt in a glass of water. The presence of chalk will make solution white and other insoluble impurities will settle down.

Take a filter paper and spread a few tea leaves. Sprinkle with water to wet the filter paper. If coal tar immediately stain the filter paper. Wash the filter paper under tap water and observe the stains against light.

Spread a little slaked lime on white porcelain tile or glass plate, sprinkle a little tea dust on the lime. Red, orange or other shades of colour spreading on the lime will show the presence of coal tar colour. In case of genuine tea, there will be only a slight greenish yellow colour due to chlorophyll, which appear after some time.

By moving a magnet through the sample, iron fillings can be separated.

Gently sprinkle the coffee powder sample on the surface of water in a glass. The coffee floats over the water but chicory begins to sink down within a few seconds. The falling chicory powder particles leave behind them a trail of colour, due to large amount of caramel.

Sprinkle the suspected coffee powder on white filter/blotting paper and spray 1 percent sodium carbonate solution on it. Tamarind and date seed powder will, if present, stain blotting paper/filter paper red.

Supari Pan Masala

Catachu Powder

Silver Leaves

Colour

Saccharin

Chalk

Aluminium leaves

Colour dissolves in water.

Saccharin gives excessive and lingering sweet taste and leaves bitter taste at the end.

Chalk gives effervescence (gives off bubbles) with concentrated Hydrochloric acid.

i. On ignition, genuine silver leaves burn away completely, leaving glistering white spherical ball of the same mass whereas aluminium leaves are reduced to ashes of dark grey blackish colour.

ii. Take silver leaves in test tube, add diluted Hydrochloric acid. Appearance of turbidity to white precipitate indicates the presence of silver leaves. Aluminium leaves do not give any turbidity or precipitate.

iii. Take a small portion of metal leaves and add a few drops of concentrated Nitric acid. Silver leaves will completely dissolve whereas aluminium leaves will remain undissolved.

This test is only for chalk.

Vinegar Mineral acid Test with the Metanil yellow indicator paper, in case, the colour changes from yellow to pink, mineral acid is present. See Appendix-I

METHOD FOR TEST

1. Test for Metanil Yellow : Take some samaple in a test tube and add some amount of water, shake well. Add few drops of diluted hydrochloric acid, violet colour in the water portion indicates the presence of Metanil Yellow.

2. Test for Starch : Boil the sample with some water in a test tube, cool and add a few drops of iodine solution. Appearance of blue colour indicates the presence of starch.

3. Baudoium Test : Take about one tea spoon full of melted ghee or butter with equal quantity of concentrated hydrochloric acid in a test tub and add to it a pinch of sugar. Shake well and allow to stand. Appearance of crimson red colour shows the presence of vanaspati of margarine.

4. Boric Acid test for Turmeric : Take a small amount of sample in a test tube, add some water and shake. Dip Boric acid paper. If it turns pink, turmeric is present Boric acid paper, can be prepared by dipping a strip of filter paper in the Boric acid solution provided in the kit. Boric Acid solution can be prepared by dissolving 5 gms of boric acid in 100ml concentrated Hydrochloric acid.

5. Mentil Yellow indicator paper : Mentil yellow indicator paper can be prepared by dipping a strip of filter paper in metanil yellow solution (1gm Metanil yellow coal tar colour dissolved in 100ml of water.

6. Oil Soluble coal tar colour : Take a small quantity of chillies powder in a beaker and add 5ml of rectified spirit (alcohol). Dip a small piece of white silk for two minutes. Remove the silk piece and wash with water. If the silk cloth is permanently dyed, it indicates the presence of oil soluble coat tar colour.

APPENDIX – II

LIST OF APPARATUS AND REAGENTS FOR DEVELOPING A SIMPLE KIT

APPARATUS :

1. Magnifying Glass
2. Spatula
3. Magnet
4. Forcep
5. Lactometer
6. Beaker
7. Petri dishes
8. Dropper
9. Reagent Bottles
10. Spirit lamp
11. Test tube ordinary

12. Test tube stoppered
13. Glass rod
14. Test tube stand
15. Small plastic tray white
16. Porcelain tile white
17. Glass Cylinder
18. Glass marking pencil
19. Filter paper
20. White silk cloth
21. Cotton

REAGENTS:

1. Hydrochloric acid
2. Nitric Acid
3. Petroleum ether
4. Solvent ether
5. Rectified sprit
6. Iodine/Tincture of iodine

7. Potassium Hydroxide
8. Ammonium Molybdate
9. Boric Acid
10. Sodium Carbonate
11. Metanil Yellow powder

PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN
CAUTION:

1. The testing kit should be kept beyond the reach of the children as it contains harmful chemicals.

2. Solvent ether is highly inflammable. Keep it away from fire.

3. Acids are highly corrosive. In case of acid burn, wash immediately with cold water containing sodium bicarbonate (Meetha Soda).

4. Use gloves while performing the tests.

Simple test for Detecting Adulteration in Common Food

Simple Screening test for Detecting Adulteration in Common Food

 

S.No

Food article

Adulteration

Test

1 Vegetable oil Castor oil Take 1 ml. of oil in a clean dry test tube. Add 10 ml. Of acidified petroleum ether. Shake vigorously for 2 minutes. Add 1 drop of Ammonium Molybdate reagent. The formation of turbidity indicates presence of Castor oil in the sample.
    Argemone oil Add 5 ml, conc. HNO3 ­­to 5 ml.sample. Shake carefully. Allow to separate yellow, orange yellow, crimson colour in the lower acid layer indicates adulteration.
2 Ghee Mashed Potato

Sweet Potato, etc.

Boil 5 ml. Of the sample in a test tube. Cool and a drop of iodine solution. Blue colour indicates presence of Starch. colour disappears on boiling &  reappears on cooling.
    Vanaspati Take 5 ml. Of the sample in a test tube. Add 5 ml. Of Hydrochloric acid and 0.4 ml of 2% furfural solution or sugar crystals. Insert the glass stopper and shake for 2 minutes. Development of a pink or red colour indicates presence of Vanaspati in Ghee.
    Rancid stuff (old ghee) Take one teaspoon of melted sample and 5 ml. Of HCl in a stoppered glass tube. Shake vigorously for 30 seconds. Add 5 ml. Of 0.1% of ether solution of Phloroglucinol. Restopper & shake for 30 seconds and allow to stand for 10 minutes. A pink or red colour in the lower(acid layer) indicates rancidity.
    Synthetic Colouring Matter Pour 2 gms. Of filtered fat dissolved in ether. Divide into 2 portions. Add 1 ml. Of HCl to one tube. Add 1 ml. Of 10% NaOH to the other tube. Shake well and allow to stand. Presence of pink colour in acidic solution or yellow colour in alkaline solution indicates added colouring matter.
3 Honey Invert sugar/jaggery 1.      Fiehe’s Test: Add 5 ml. Of solvent ether to 5 ml. Of honey. Shake well and decant the ether layer in a petri dish. Evaporate completely by blowing the ether layer. Add 2 to 3 ml. Of resorcinol (1 gm. Of resorcinol resublimed in 5 ml. Of conc. HCl.) Appearance of cherry red colour indicates presence of sugar/jaggery.
      2.      Aniline Chloride Test : Take 5 ml. Of honey in a porcelain dish. Add Aniline Chloride solution (3 ml of  Aniline and 7 ml. Of 1:3 HCl) and stir well. Orange red colour indicates presence of sugar.

 

4. Pulses/Besan Kesari dal(Lathyrus sativus) Add 50 ml. Of dil.HCl to a small quantity of dal and keep on simmering water for about 15 minutes. The pink colour, if developed indicates the presence of Kesari dal.
5 Pulses Metanil Yellow(dye) Add conc.HCl to a small quantity of dal in a little amount of water. Immediate development of pink colour indicates the presence of metanil yellow and similar colour dyes.
    Lead Chromate Shake 5 gm. Of pulse with 5 ml. Of water and add a few drops of HCl. Pink colour indicates Lead Chromate.
6 Bajra Ergot infested Bajra Swollen and black Ergot infested grains will turn light in weight and will float also in water
7 Wheat flour Excessive sand & dirt Shake a little quantity of sample with about 10 ml. Of Carbon tetra chloride and allow to stand. Grit and sandy matter will collect at the bottom.
    Excessive bran Sprinkle on water surface. Bran will float on the surface.
    Chalk powder Shake sample with dil.HCl Effervescence indicates chalk.
8 Common spices like Turmeric, chilly, curry powder,etc. Colour Extract the sample with Petroleum ether and add 13N H2SO4to the extract. Appearance of red colour (which persists even upon adding  little distilled water) indicates the presence of added colours. However, if the colour disappears upon adding distilled water the sample is not adulterated.
9 Black Pepper Papaya seeds/light berries, etc. Pour the seeds in a beaker containing Carbon tetra-chloride. Black papaya seeds float on the top while the pure black pepper seeds settle down.
10 Spices(Ground) Powdered bran and saw dust Sprinkle on water surface. Powdered bran and sawdust float on the surface.
11 Coriander powder Dung powder Soak in water. Dung will float and can be easily detected by its foul smell.
    Common salt To 5 ml. Of sample add a few drops of silver nitrate. White precipitate indicates adulteration.
12 Chillies Brick powder grit, sand, dirt, filth, etc. Pour the sample in a beaker containing a mixture of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Brick powder and grit will settle at the bottom.
13 Badi Elaichi seeds

 

Choti Elaichi seeds

 

Separate out the seeds by physical examination. The seeds of Badi Elaichi have nearly plain surface without wrinkles or streaks while seeds of cardamom have pitted or wrinkled ends.
14 Turmeric Powder Starch of maize, wheat, tapioca, rice A microscopic study reveals that only pure turmeric is yellow coloured, big in size and has an angular structure. While foreign/added starches are colourless and small in size as compared to pure turmeric starch.
15 Turmeric Lead Chromate Ash the sample. Dissolve it in 1:7 Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and filter. Add 1 or 2 drops of 0.1% dipenylcarbazide. A pink colour indicates presence of Lead Chromate.
    Metanil Yellow Add few drops of conc.Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to sample. Instant appearance of violet colour, which disappears on dilution with water, indicates pure turmeric. If colour persists Metanil yellow is present.
16 Cumin seeds

(Black jeera)

Grass seeds coloured with charcoal dust Rub the cumin seeds on palms. If palms turn black adulteration in indicated.
17 Asafoetida(Heeng) Soap stone, other earthy matter Shake a little quantity of powdered sample with water. Soap stone or other earthy matter will settle at the bottom.
    Chalk Shake sample with Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Asafoetida will settle down. Decant the top layer and add dil.HCl to the residue. Effervescence shows presence of  chalk.
18 Foodgrains Hidden insect infestation Take a filter paper impregnated with Ninhydrin (1% in alcohol.) Put some grains on it and then fold the filter paper and crush the grains with hammer. Spots of bluish purple colour indicate presence of hidden insects infestation

Criteria for selection of food

Selection of wholesome and non-adulterated food is essential for daily life to make sure that such foods do not cause any health hazard. Although it is not possible to ensure wholesome food only on visual examination when the toxic contaminants are present in ppm/ppb level. However, visual examination of the food before purchase makes sure to ensure absence of insects, visual fungus, foreign matters, etc. Therefore, due care  taken by the consumer at the time of purchase of food after thoroughly examining can be of great help. Secondly, label declaration on packed food is very important for knowing the ingredients and nutritional value . It also helps in checking the freshness of the food and the period of best before use. The consumer should avoid taking food from an unhygienic place and food being prepared under unhygienic conditions. Such types of food may cause various diseases. Consumption of cut fruits being sold in unhygienic conditions should be avoided. It is always better to buy certified food from reputed shop.

 

FSSAI take on common food adulterants

FSSAI take on common food adulterants

Recently, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) prepared a document that would be useful to householders while detecting common adulterants in food. Adulteration is not only an unethical practice, but also a serious risk to our health. The manual provides the testing methodology for adulterants.

FSSAI stated, “Consumers do not have sufficient knowledge about the purity and quality of the food articles they consume. Mere visual inspection does not serve the purpose, especially when adulteration has assumed a high degree of sophistication. With this view, we have developed ‘Quick Test for Some Adulterants in Food’, so consumers can screen their food articles.”

The manual, whose tagline is ‘Eat Pure…..Live Pure….’, describes adulteration of food as “a deep-rooted social evil”. It goes on to explain that among man’s everyday needs, food plays a key role – sustenance. From a simple dish to the most lavish spread, food preparation is as varied and rich as our tastes.

It added, “The lure of riches and the general apathy (of those who indulge in such unscrupulous practices) towards mankind has led to adulterants being added to food. These range from stones in rice to the toxic brick and boric powder.” Adulteration of food is defined as the addition or subtraction of any substance to or from food, so its natural composition and quality is affected.

Adulteration may either be intentional (by removing substances from food or altering its existing natural properties knowingly) or unintentional (which is usually attributed to the ignorance, carelessness or lack of facilities for maintaining the quality of food). Be it intentional or unintentional, the common man suffers because the food is consumed without thorough checks.

“Milk and milk products, atta, edible oils, cereals, condiments (whole and ground), pulses, coffee, tea, confectionery, baking powder, non-alcoholic beverages, vinegar, besan and curry powder are the most common adulterated foods. Consumer awareness is the remedy for eliminating the evil of adulteration and the sale of sub-standard food articles,” the country’s food regulator said.

“Two parts of the instruction manual have been developed, namely Part-I and Part-II. Part-I (which contains all the following instructions) incorporates simple testing procedures which can easily be performed at home and simply helps the consumers screen their day-to-day food articles,” it said.

“Part-II incorporates testing procedures which require specific chemicals, reagents and glassware and cover a wider range of adulterated food group. The scope of this manual is limited to small industries, food vendors, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), etc., but for detailed confirmatory tests and quantification, analysis in a laboratory is a must,” the manual stated.

Adulteration simplified
Food is one of the basic necessities of life. Although we work hard and earn to satisfy our hunger, we are usually not aware of what we consume. We may actually be eating a dangerous dye, sawdust, soapstone, industrial starch or aluminium foil! Contaminated food and drink are sources of infection, which can be avoided.

Food adulteration is an act of intentionally debasing the quality of food offered for sale by the admixture or substitution of inferior substances or by the removal of some valuable ingredient. An adulterant is any material which is or could be employed for making the food unsafe or sub-standard or misbranded or containing extraneous matter.

Food adulteration takes into account not only the intentional addition or substitution or abstraction of substances which adversely affect the nature, substance and quality of foods, but also their incidental contamination during the period of growth, harvesting, storage, processing, transport and distribution.

Food is adulterated if its quality is lowered or affected by the addition of substances which are injurious to health or by the removal of substances which are nutritious. Adulterated food is dangerous because it could be toxic and could deprive food of the nutrients essential for proper growth and development.

Food is declared adulterated if:

a substance is added which depreciates or injuriously affects it

cheaper or inferior substances are substituted wholly or in part

any valuable or necessary constituent has been wholly or in part abstracted

it is an imitation

it is coloured or otherwise treated to improve its appearance or if it contains any added substance injurious to health

for whatever reasons its quality is below the standard

More often than not, food is adulterated by merchants and traders who want to make a quick profit. But sometimes, shortages and increasing prices, consumer demands for variety in foods, a lack of awareness, negligence, indifference and lethargy among consumers and inadequate enforcement of food laws and food safety measures also lead to food adulteration.

Types of adulterants
Intentional adulterants: Sand, marble chips, stones, mud, other filth, talc, chalk powder, water, mineral oil and harmful colour

Incidental adulterants: Pesticide residues, droppings of rodents and larvae in foods

Metallic contaminants: Arsenic from pesticides, lead from water, effluents from chemical industries and tin from cans

Poisonous or deleterious substances
If a food contains a poisonous or deleterious substance that may render it injurious to health, it is adulterated. Examples are apple cider contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 and Brie cheese contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Mixing a poisonous substance in excess of a tolerance limit, regulatory limit or action level to reduce the level of contamination is not permitted.

Sometimes, adulterated food is deliberately mixed with good food. This renders the finished product adulterated.

Filth and foreign matter
Filth and extraneous material include any objectionable substances in foods, such as foreign matter (such as glass, metal, plastic, wood, stones, sand and cigarette butts), undesirable parts of the raw plant material (such as stems, pits in pitted olives, pieces of shell in canned oysters) and filth (namely mold, rot, insect and rodent parts, excreta and decomposition).

Economic adulteration
A food is said to be adulterated if it omits a valuable constituent or substitutes another substance, in whole or part, for a valuable constituent (for example, if olive oil is diluted with tea tree oil); conceals damage or inferiority in any manner (such as fresh fruit with food colouring on the surface to conceal defects); or any substance has been added to it or packed with it to increase its bulk or weight, reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear bigger or of greater value than it is (for example, adding water to scallops to make them heavier).

Microbiological contamination and adulteration
The fact that a food is contaminated with pathogens (harmful micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses or protozoa) may or may not render it adulterated. Generally in a ready-to-eat food, the presence of pathogens will render the food adulterated. Salmonella in fresh fruit and vegetables or ready-to-eat meat or poultry products such as luncheon meats is an example.

For meat and poultry products, which are regulated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the rules are more complicated. Ready-to-eat meat and poultry products contaminated with pathogens, such as salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes, are adulterated (because raw meat and poultry products are intended to be cooked and only proper cooking will kill the pathogens). Raw poultry contaminated with salmonella is not adulterated.

Methods for detection of common adulterants in food

[Note: These include items mentioned in both Part-I and Part-II of the instruction manual.]

Water in milk

This is the most common example of adulteration. To detect the presence of water in milk, place a drop of milk on a polished slanting surface. A drop of pure milk will flow slowly, leaving a white trail in its wake, whereas milk that’s been adulterated with water will flow immediately without leaving a mark.

Other adulterants in milk

Starch
A few drops of iodine tincture or solution are added to the milk. If its turns blue, starch is present in it.

Urea
A teaspoon of milk is put in a test tube, and half-a-teaspoon of soybean or arhar powder is added to it. The contents are mixed by shaking the test tube well. After about five minutes, a red litmus paper is dipped in it, and removed about 30 seconds later. If the litmus paper turns blue, urea is present in the milk.

Vanaspati
About 3ml of milk is taken in a test tube and about ten drops of hydrochloric acid are added to it. A teaspoonful of sugar is added to the mixture. After about five minutes, the mixture is examined. The red colouration indicates the presence of vanaspati in the milk.

Formalin
Formalin enhances the life of milk and is thus added for the purpose of preservation. About 10ml of milk in a test tube and about 5ml of concentrated sulphuric acid is added from the sides of the wall without shaking it. If a violet or blue ring appears at the intersection of two layers then it shows the presence of formalin.

Detergent
About 5-10ml of the milk sample is mixed with an equal amount of water lather. When shaken, it indicates the presence of detergent.

Synthetic milk
Synthetic milk has a bitter after-taste, gives a soapy feeling when rubbed between the fingers and turns yellowish on heating.

Synthetic milk – test for protein
The milk can be tested by using Urease strips. Synthetic milk is devoid of protein.

Test for glucose/inverted sugar
If a test for glucose with a Urease strip has a positive result, the milk does not contain glucose or inverted sugar. If it is made synthetically by adding by adding white coloured water paint, oils, alkali, urea, detergent, etc. Glucose or inverted sugar syrup is added in milk to increase the consistency and taste.

Ghee, cottage cheese, condensed milk, khoa, milk powder, etc.
About 5ml of diluted H2SO4 or concentrated HCl is added to one teaspoon full of the melted milk sample in a test tube and shaken well. If it turns pink (in case of H2SO4) or crimson (in case of HCl) it indicates the presence of coal tar dyes. If HCl does not give a colour, it can be obtained by diluting it with water.

Dairy products
Sweet curd

A tablespoonful of curd is taken in a test tube and about ten drops of hydrochloric acid are added to it. The contents are mixed by shaking the test tube gently. After about five minutes, if upon examination, it is observed that the mixture has turned red, the curd contains vanaspati.

Rabri
A teaspoon of rabri is taken in a test tube and about 3ml of hydrochloric acid and 3ml of distilled water are added to it. The contents are stirred with a glass rod, which is then removed. If, upon examination, the rod is found to have fine fibres, it shows the presence of blotting paper in rabri.

Khoa and its products
A small quantity of a khoa sample (or the sample of a product containing khoa) is boiled in water and cooled. A few drops of iodine solution are added it. If it turns blue, it indicates the presence of starch.

Chhana/paneer
A small quantity of a chhana or paneer sample is boiled in water and cooled. A few drops of iodine solution are added it. If it turns blue, it indicates the presence of starch.

Oils and Fats
Ghee/butter

About a teaspoonful each of melted ghee and concentrated hydrochloric acid are taken in a stoppered test tube and a pinch of sugar is added to it. It is shaken for about a minutes and left for about five minutes. If the acid turns crimson, it indicates the presence of vanaspati or margarine.

The test is specific to sesame oil, which is added to vanaspati and margarine, Some coal tar colours also give a positive test. If the test is positive (i.e. if the acid turns red) only by adding strong hydrochloric acid (without adding crystals of sugar) then the sample is adulterated with coal tar dye. If the red colour appears after the sugar is added and the mixture is shaken, then only vanaspati or margarine is present.

Mashed potatoes, sweet potatoes and other starches
A few drops of iodine are added to a ghee sample. Iodine, which is brownish in colour, turns blue if the sample contains mashed potatoes, sweet potatoes or other kinds of starches.

Edible oil
About 5ml of edible oil is taken in a test tube and about 5ml of hydrochloric acid is added to it. It is shaken gently and then let to stand for about five minutes. The adulterant (prohibited colour) and the oil will separate, and the former will form the upper layer.

Coconut oil
A small bottle of oil is placed in the refrigerator. Upon solidifying, the adulterant (any other oil) forms a separate layer.

Sweetening agents
Sugar
Chalk

About 10gm of sugar is dissolved in a glass of water and allowed to settle. Chalk will settle at the bottom.

Urea
Upon dissolution in water containing sugar, urea gives the smell of ammonia.

Non-permitted yellow colour
About 5ml of water containing sugar is taken in a test tube, and a few drops of concentrated HCl is added to it. If the lower layers of the acid turn pink, it indicates the presence of non-permitted colour.

Honey
A cotton wick is dipped in pure honey. Upon lighting it with a matchstick, it will burn and show the purity of honey. The presence of water (one of the two ingredients in a sugar solution) will not allow the honey to burn. If it does, it will produce a cracking sound. This test is only for added water.

Jaggery

Washing soda
A few drops of solution HCl is added to jaggery. Effervescence indicates the presence of washing soda.

Chalk powder
Jaggery is dissolved in water. If it settles down, it indicates the presence of chalk powder.

Alternately, a few drops of concentrated HCl are added to the jaggery. Effervescence indicates the presence of the adulterant.

Metanil yellow colour
A quarter of a teaspoon of jaggery is taken in a test tube. About 3ml of alcohol is added to it and the test tube is shaken vigorously to mix the content. About ten drops of hydrochloric acid are added to it. A pink colour indicates the presence of metanil yellow (a non-permitted coal tar colour) in jaggery.

Sugar solution
A drop of honey is added to a glass of water. If it does not disperse in the water, the honey is pure; but if it does, it indicates the presence of added sugar.

Bura sugar
About 1ml of HCl is added to little bura sugar. If washing soda is present, effervescence will occur. About 2gm of sugar is dissolved in water, and red litmus paper in the solution. If washing soda is present, it will turn blue.

Sweetmeats, ice cream and beverages
Colour is extracted from food articles using lukewarm water. A few drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid is added to it. A magenta colour indicates the presence of metanil yellow.

Saccharin
A small quantity of a sweetmeat, ice cream or a beverage is tasted. Saccharin leaves a sweet taste in the mouth for a long time, but it eventually tastes bitter.

Foodgrains

Wheat/rice/maize/jawar/bajra/chana/barley, etc.
These may be examined visually to see foreign matter, damaged grains, discoloured grains, insects, rodent contamination, etc.

Common adulterants in foodgrains include dust, pebbles, stones, straw, weeds, seeds, weevilled grain, insects, rodent hair and excreta.

Damaged or discoloured grain should be as low as possible since they may be affected by fungal toxins, argemone seeds, dhatura seeds, etc. A moderately excessive amount can result in risks to health. The damaged, undesirable grains should be discarded before use.

Maida
When dough is prepared from the resultant or left-out atta, more water has to be used. The normal taste of chapatis prepared out of wheat is slightly sweet, whereas those prepared from adulterated wheat will taste insipid.

Maida/rice
A small amount of maida or rice is taken in a test tube, some water is added to it and it is shaken. A few drops of HCl are added to it. A turmeric paper strip is dipped in it. If it turns red, boric acid is present.

Wheat/bajra and other grains

Ergot

(i) Purple black longer-sized grains in bajra show the presence of ergots (fungi that contain poisonous substances)

(ii) Some grains are put in a glass tumbler containing 20 per cent salt solution (20gm common salt to 100ml water). Purple black longer-sized grains of ergots floats over the surface, while the sound grains settle down

Dhatura
Dhatura seeds are flat with blackish-brown edges that can be separated upon close examination.

Burnt kernel
The affected wheat kernel has a dull appearance, is blackish in colour and smells like rotten fish.

Sella rice (parboiled rice)

Metanil yellow
When a few grains of sella rice are rubbed in the palms of both hands, the yellow colour is reduced or disappears. When a few drops of diluted hydrochloric acid are added to a few rice grains mixed with a little water, the presence of the pink colour indicates the presence of metanil yellow.

Turmeric (a colour used for the golden appearance)

(i) A small amount of sella rice is taken in a test tube, some water is added and it is shaken. If, upon dipping boric acid paper (filter paper dipped in boric acid solution), it turns pink, turmeric is present

(ii) Some rice is taken and a small amount of soaked lime is sprinkled on it for a while. If turmeric is present, the grains will turn red