Home » FSS ACT » Salt content in most Indian packaged foods not upto global standards: Study

Salt content in most Indian packaged foods not upto global standards: Study

Friday, 15 July, 2016, 08 : 00 AM [IST]
Ashwani Maindola, New Delhi
High levels of salt in packaged foods sold in India is posing a serious threat to health of people, according to a recent research by the George Institute for Global Health, Public Health Foundation of India and the Centre for Chronic Disease Control, India. Salt intake in India is estimated to be more than double the recommended maximum of 2000mg sodium (5g salt) /day set by World Health Organisation.

The study, which looked at 5,796 packaged food products, revealed huge differences in the salt content of similar foods, with some containing almost 10 times more salt than others. In fact, with regard to compliance to global level standards, less than a quarter of the products surveyed would meet UK 2017 salt targets, informed the institute in a statement.

Elaborating on the study, Dr Vivekanand Jha, executive director, The George Institute for Global Health, India, stated, “The high level of salt in processed food is a great public health concern, as we are noticing a shift in dietary habits towards more convenience foods. The main problem caused by salt is high blood pressure which greatly increases the risk of stroke, heart attack and kidney failure. These are all now leading causes of death and disability in India.”

The research looked at nine main food categories which contribute salt to the diet in India, and revealed that many food groups contain excessively high levels of salt. In particular, cooking sauces, table sauces and spreads contained on average five-and-a-half gram of salt per 100 gm, with some containing 10 times that amount and others with almost no salt at all. “This is particularly alarming as sauces and spread are often added to meals, and with such high salt contents, it will add substantially more salt to the diet,” said Dr Jha.

Similarly, papads, a popular meal accompaniment, contained as much as 5gm salt/100gm, whilst others contained no salt. “These findings clearly illustrate that food manufacturers are able to produce these foods with much less salt,” pointed out Clare Farrand, senior project manager for salt reduction strategies, WHO Collaborating Centre for Salt Reduction at The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney.

“In view of this report and the change in dietary habits, there is an urgent need for the Government of India to develop a clear set of criteria or targets to reduce the amount of salt added to food by the food industry. This research provides baseline data on the amount of salt in foods sold in India, which can be used to develop reformulation targets to reduce salt levels in food as part of a national salt reduction strategy and reduce the risk of stroke and heart disease related disease death in India,” she added.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends all member states reduce mean population level salt intake by 30% by 2025. The WHO Collaborating Centre on population salt reduction at The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, has a remit to support countries to achieve these targets.

Further to this, the survey revealed that only a third of products had salt content on the nutrition label, making it impossible for Indians to know how much salt they would be eating, and make a healthier choice. Almost a quarter of products carried no nutritional details at all.

“We think it’s important that Indian consumers can easily see what’s in their food; there is a clear need for better food labelling,” said Dr Prabhakaran from the Public Health Foundation of India and Centre for Chronic Disease Control, New Delhi. He noted, “It currently isn’t mandatory to display salt levels on food packaging but it’s certainly something we need to consider.”

The institute added that to help Indians make healthier packaged food choices and stay healthy, it has launched ‘FoodSwitch’ – an innovative nutrition mobile app. Users can download the app for free from the iTunes store or Google Play and use it to scan the barcode of any packaged food product.

The app will display a colour coded label coloured green (good), amber or red (limit) depending upon the amount of salt in the product. It will show the same colour coding for fats and sugars and list similar but healthier alternatives, making it easier than ever before to make a better choice.

Key findings

(24%) of products do not have any nutrition information, and therefore do not meet the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) national nutrition labelling requirements for processed foods (2011).

Two thirds of products do not list salt on the nutrition information panel and do not meet International Codex Alimentarius requirements.

Some products contain excessively high levels of salt; for example papads, a commonly consumed meal accompaniment in India have a mean sodium content of 1219mg/100gm – with a range of 2-4000mg/100gm. This illustrates that papads can be made with as little as 2mg of sodium/100gm, 2000 times less sodium than the papad product with the highest sodium content.

Less than a quarter of products meet the UK 2017 salt target, emphasising the need for a clear strategy to reduce the amount of salt added to processed foods.

Implications
Incomplete nutrition information makes it impossible for people to know what they are eating and hard to make a healthier choice.

Absent nutrition information makes it difficult to monitor amounts of salt, fat and sugar in widely consumed food products, and hold the food industry to account to reduce the unnecessary amounts of salt, fat and sugar added to processed foods.

The high level of salt in processed food is a great public health concern; salt increases blood pressure, and thereby the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, the biggest killer worldwide.

According to the report, salt intake in India is estimated to be more than double the recommended maximum of 2000mg sodium (5gm salt) /day set by WHO. High salt intake increases the risk of developing high blood pressure, the main cause of strokes and a leading cause of heart attacks and heart failure – the most common causes of death and disability in the world. Excess salt consumption is estimated to cause about 600,000 deaths each year and to be the fifth leading cause of death in India.

Foods were categorised into 18 main groups
Alcoholic beverages; Bread and bakery products; Cereal and grain products; Confectionery; Convenience foods; Dairy and dairy alternatives; Edible oils and oil emulsions; Eggs; Fish and fish products; Fruits and vegetables; Meat and meat products; Non-alcoholic beverages; Sauces and spreads; Snack foods; Sugars, honey and related products; Special foods; Unable to be categorised; Vitamin and mineral supplements.

Of these 18 main food groups, Bread and bakery products, Cereal and grain products, Convenience foods, Dairy and dairy alternatives, Fish and fish products, Fruits and vegetables, Meat and meat products, Sauces and spreads and Snack foods were identified as likely significant contributors to salt in the Indian diet. These nine main food groups were then sub-categorised into specific food groups according to the food composition database criteria. For each food product, the brand name, product name, serving size, presence of nutritional information and sodium content per 100gm was recorded.

Further representative of George institute K Krishnaswamy stated that the main objective of the study was to study the levels of the salt in various food products and they found the levels higher than prescribed limit.

Meanwhile, according a representative of All India Food Processors’ Association, many a times salt is used for preservation of the food product and the salt intake in food also depends upon the food habit of the individual. Such food was termed until recently as junk food but now it was being called as food high on sugar, salt and fat. “Although everything including salt, sugar and fat are vital component of the food and the body requires them as well but the amount certainly needed care,” he stated.

P Rajan Mathews, VP, sales & marketing, food division, Desai Brothers Ltd, who are into pickle business revealed that the reason behind the excess salt is that salt acts as flavour potentiater in many of the food products. Excess salt in some of the foods acts as preservation (especially pickles) but the consumption pattern is along with staples – rice or chapati hence the required salt level decreases resulting in less intact of sodium overall.

Same applies to papads as it is an accompaniment along with meals which are consumed along with staples such as rice or chapati during meals but it does not come under the pickles category like excess salt. Palatable salt is added in papad and not excess.

“In FSSAI, this category is not included however BIS category do have but doesn’t mention the salt content %. This product is designed as per palatable requirement which is quite acceptable as an accompaniment with meals. Pickles as per FSSAI not less than 12% (pickle in brine).”

He added that they were exporting to various countries ( more than 40 countries ) and no such objectionable issue occurred. The major difference is in regards to nutrition panel in export market, which creates awareness on serve size and amount of sodium intake per serve.

Key Findings: Salt content in processed foods in India

Background
Salt intake in India is estimated to be more than double the recommended maximum of 2000mg sodium (5g salt) /day set by World Health Organisation. High salt intake increases the risk of developing high blood pressure, the main cause of strokes and a leading cause of heart attacks and heart failure – the most common causes of death and disability in the world.iExcess salt consumption is estimated to cause about 600,000 deathsiieach year and to be the 5th leading cause of death in India.

Traditionally the main source of salt in Indian diets is that added during cooking or at the table and from pickled vegetables. However recent years have seen a shift in the dietary habits of many Indians from traditional home cooking towards convenience foods.  This is particularly so in urban areas where processed foods are increasingly available.iii

The aim of this report is to identify the number of products which have information about salt on the nutrition information panel on the package label; to compare the salt content of processed food products sold in India and to benchmark the salt content of Indian products against corresponding salt targets set to be achieved in the United Kingdom by 2017.iv

Methods
Data collection

Nutrition data from the FoodSwitch database of packaged food products collected from eight branches of supermarket chains in Delhi and Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh between 2012 and 2014was used for this report. Data was reviewed and cleaned to remove duplicate products, multipacks, and to correct data inputting errors (Figure 1).

Data categorisation
Foods were categorised into 18 main groupsv:

  • Alcoholic beverages

  • Bread and bakery products

  • Cereal and grain products

  • Confectionary

  • Convenience foods

  • Dairy and dairy alternatives

  • Edible oils and oil emulsions

  • Eggs

  • Fish and fish products

  • Fruits and vegetables

  • Meat and meat products

  • Non-alcoholic beverages

  • Sauces and spreads

  • Snack foods

  • Sugars, honey and related products

  • Special foods

  • Unable to be categorized

  • Vitamin and mineral supplements

Of these 18 main food groups, 9 (in bold) were identified as likely significant contributors to salt in the Indian diet.iiThe 9 main food groups were then sub-categorised into specific food groups according to the food composition database criteria5.For each food product, the brand name, product name, serving size, presence of nutritional information and sodium content per 100g was recorded.

Data analysis

The proportion of products with nutrition information and the proportion of products displaying sodium information was calculated overall for each main food group, and each specific food category. In addition, for products with sodium data reported mean levels and ranges of sodium (mg/100g) were calculated for each main food group and specific food category.

Levels of salt in specific food categories were compared against the UK 2017 salt targets which provide salt targets for 76 categories of food. The proportions of Indian products known to meet the UK 2017 salt targets (i.e. reporting salt content data and having a salt content less than the target) were derived for each specific food category.

Results

There were5796 products in the 18 main food groups. Seventy-six percent of these products had a nutrition information panel (NIP), and thirty-five percent had information about the salt content reported as sodium per 100g (Table 1). Note – Salt in foods is usually reported as sodium. To convert the sodium content to the salt content it is necessary to multiply by 2.5 –for example 100mg/100g sodium = 250mg/100g salt.

There were 4218 products in the 9 main food groups identified as major contributors to sodium in the diet. 1539 (27%) of these products had information about salt content reported on the label (Table 2).

Mean sodium content

There was a wide range of sodium content both between and within the 9 main food groups studied. The food group with the highest mean sodium content was sauces and spreads,2213mg/100g(range 0.0 to 21218 mg/100g)compared to the lowest mean sodium content found in meat and meat products 413mg/100g, (range 2.0-1000 mg/100g).

Within sauces and spreads the highest mean sodium content were found in: meal based sauces 5601mg/100g (range 179–21218mg/100g); pickles 4487mg/100g, (range 1600-5433) and Asian sauces 3190mg/100g (range 270-8400)

Products meeting UK 2017 salt targets

Overall 21% of products were known to meet the UK 2017 sodium targets with greatest compliance among hard cheeses (60%), pasta (56%), and canned soup (47%). Only 2 bread products were known to meet the target (Table 2).

Key findings

  • A quarter (24%) of products do not have any nutrition information, and therefore do not meet the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) national nutrition labelling requirements for processed foods (2011). The FSSAI standard requires all processed food products to include information about energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat on nutrition information panels on pack.iii

  • Two thirds of products do not list salt on the nutrition information panel and do not meet International Codex Alimentarius requirements –an international food standard, requiring all food products to list sodium information.iv FSSAI does not currently require reporting of sodium content on pack.

  • Some products contain excessively high levels of salt; for example papads, a commonly consumed meal accompaniment in India have a mean sodium content of 1219mg/100g – with a range of 2-4000mg/100g. This illustrates that papads can be made with as little as 2mg of sodium/100g, 2000 times less sodium than the papad product with the highest sodium content.

  • Less than a quarter of products meet the UK 2017 salt target, emphasising the need for a clear strategy to reduce the amount of salt added to processed foods.

Implications

  • Incomplete nutrition information makes it impossible for people to know what they are eating and hard to make a healthier choice.

  • Absent nutrition information makes it difficult to monitor amounts of salt, fat and sugar in widely consumed food products, and hold the food industry to account to reduce the unnecessary amounts of salt, fat and sugar added to processed foods.

  • The high level of salt in processed food is a great public health concern; salt increases blood pressure, and thereby the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, the biggest killer worldwide.

Specific examples below to be used in media statement – once products are checked in store:

  • Sri Ganeshram’s 777 brand Appalam papad contains 4000mg sodium/100g, 2000 times more sodium than Arul Appalam papad which contains 2mg sodium/100g.

Papads are a commonly consumed meal accompaniment in India, and so are eaten as part of a meal, and often with every meal. The excessive amount of salt in some papads may contribute huge amounts of salt to the diet of some Indians. The variation in salt content between one papad product and another demonstrates that such high levels of salt are not required in the manufacturing of papads, and there is likely huge potential for reformulation of these products to much lower salt levels.

  • A 60g serving of ‘Knorr Soupy Noodles Yummy Chicken’ (2486 sodium/100g) would contribute almost 3 quarters of a days’ worthv of salt in a single dish (3.7g salt). By comparison, a similar product ‘Koka Noodles Spicy Shrimp Flavour noodles’ with a much lower salt content (281 sodium/100g) would contribute just 0.7salt per serving (14% of recommended daily intake).

This illustrates that products can be made with far less salt, and food companies should work to reduce the amount of sodium added to processed foods to their lowest possible level, gradually so that consumers don’t notice the difference.

  • Kelloggs Corn Flakes with real almond and honey sold in India contains 650mg sodium/100g. This is twice the amount of salt as the UK equivalent (Crunchy Nut Cornflakesvi) which contains just 320mg sodium/100g.

This illustrates that Kelloggs is able to make the same product with far less salt, and should do so across all markets in which it sells its products to ensure that everyone can enjoy the benefit of eating less salt (sugar, and fat).

Table 1 shows the proportionsof food products carrying nutrition Information and the proportion of products carrying information about salt levels

Main food group No. of products Products with
nutrition information
Products with salt data
(sodium
per 100g)
    No % No. %
Bread and bakery products 600 558 93.0% 164 27.3%
Cereal and grain products 771 514 66.7% 260 33.7%
Confectionery 346 277 80.1% 111 32.1%
Convenience foods 174 174 100.0% 117 67.2%
Dairy and dairy alternatives 289 284 98.3% 131 45.3%
Edible oils and oil emulsions 142 134 94.4% 39 27.5%
Eggs 7 5 71.4% 1 14.3%
Fish and fish products 46 45 97.8% 32 69.6%
Fruit and vegetables 1219 546 44.8% 339 27.8%
Meat and meat products 61 47 77.0% 12 19.7%
Non-alcoholic beverages 659 549 83.3% 184 27.9%
Sauces and spreads 572 532 93.0% 281 49.1%
Snack foods 504 452 89.7% 203 40.3%
Sugars, honey and related products 145 85 58.6% 35 24.1%
Special foods 158 158 100.0% 74 46.8%
Unable to be categorised 15 9 60.0% 5 33.3%
Vitamin and mineral supplements 82 32 39.0% 11 13.4%
Alcohol 6 2 33.3% 1 16.7%
Total 5796 4403 76.0% 2000 34.5%


Table 4 shows the mean and range of sodium for specific food categories within the 9 main foods groups, and the percentage of products meeting the UK 2017 salt targets

Table 4. Mean, range of sodium and percentage of products known to meet the UK 2017 sodium target
Specific food group No. of products Products with
sodium data
Mean
(mg/100g)
Range UK 2017
target
% Products known
to meet the
UK2017 target
% (mg/100g)
Bread and bakery products 597 27% 473 2.0-4000.0    
Biscuits, plain dry 41 20% 460 300-670 380 10%
Biscuits, savoury 44 5% 736 708-764 700 0%
Biscuits, sweet filled 168 26% 214 14-472 380 21%
Biscuits, sweet unfilled 139 40% 254 6-701 380 31%
Bread 32 19% 1116 2.0-4000 450 6%
Papad (other bread) 120 28% 1219 2.0-4000 1000 16%
Cake mixes 13 8% 909 180
Cakes 40 35% 244 40-1600 280 30%
Cereal and grain products 766 34% 474 0.0-7250    
Breakfast cereals 213 62% 478 0-2110 400 33%
Cereal and nut based bars 18 28% 33 0-75.1 380 28%
Couscous 1 100% 100 70 0%
Plain Noodles 12 42% 292 21-600 350 25%
Instant Noodles 87 43% 1245 26-7250 350 13%
Pasta 74 58% 52 0-1000 350 57%
Rice 119 20% 6 0-38 70 20%
Flavoured Rice 16 0%
Plain cereal based products 226 5% 799 4-2970 400 4%
Convenience foods 167 71% 1337 0.0-5378    
Ready meals 85 66% 503 0-1400 380 18%
Canned soup 15 87% 275 200-501 250 47%
Dry soup 66 74% 2573 180-5378 250 15%
Salad 1
Dairy and dairy alternatives 289 45% 502 0.0-2000    
Cheese, hard 15 93% 716 152.1-1095 800 60%
Cheese, soft 9 67% 900 456.6-1520 270 0%
Cheese, processed 31 87% 1260 840-1730 720 0%
Paneer 6 50% 181 50-400 270 33%
Cream 3 67% 324 34-614 0%
Desserts 65 57% 342 0-2000 110 26%
Ice cream 65 20% 68 43-180
Milk 71 34% 60 0-320
Yogurt 24 25% 35 28-40
Fish and fish products 46 70% 457 38.0-887    
Canned fish 16 88% 421 48-870 360 31%
Other canned fish 2 100% 710 550-870 600 50%
Frozen fish 28 57% 457 38-887 300 18%
Fruit and vegetables 1218 28% 764 0.0-8000
Fruit 108 41% 43 0-539
Herbs and spices 555 20% 1433 0-8000
Jams and marmalades 85 48% 35 0-387 250 47%
Nuts and seeds 142 34% 318 10-1100
Vegetables 179 0%
Canned Vegetables 44 89% 112 0-384 50 52%
Uncanned Vegetables 5 0%
Dried Vegetables 11 27% 281 23-446
Plain frozen vegetables 4 25% 70 275 25%
Pickled vegetables 57 75% 1719 1-8000 1500 37%
Fresh packaged Fruit and Vegetables 28 36% 355 10-1407
Meat and meat products 61 20% 413 2.0-1000    
Meat alternatives 24 8% 51 36-65 750 8%
Canned meat 5 0% 300
Frozen meat 18 22% 367 100-504 300 6%
Salami and cured meats 2 0% 650
Sausages and hotdogs 6 17% 410 550 17%
Plate and meat spreads 1 100% 1900 550 0%
Other meat products 5 80% 746 614-1000 300 0%
Sauces and spreads  572 49% 2213 0.0-21218    
Asian sauces 44 55% 3190 270-8400 1500 16%
Gravies and stocks 10 10% 0 450 10%
Marinades 7 57% 3408 2037-4559 1500 0%
Meal-based sauces 137 40% 5602 179-21218 1500 6%
Cranberry sauce 2 50% 0 480 0%
Mustard sauces 9 33% 1580 2020-2600 480 0%
Other sauces 13 69% 451 350-940 480 46%
Pesto 3 33% 470 650 0%
Pasta sauces 56 82% 419 256-850 370 27%
Table sauces 62 56% 1061 0.7-2400 680 10%
Tomato paste 8 63% 1143 184-2030 680 25%
Mayonnaise 18 50% 631 18-1500 500 22%
Salad dressings 26 88% 759 1.0-2100 600 23%
Vinegar 16 38% 123 0-720 1000 38%
Spreads 55 56% 540 156-1700 550 35%
Relishes 3 67% 645 440-850 1500 67%
Pickles 96 25% 4488 1600-5433 1500 0%
Chutneys 7 29% 1284 301-2266 480 14%
Snack foods 502 40% 665 0.0-2300    
Corn chips 26 50% 786 58-1464 800 23%
Extruded snacks 60 15% 491 106-1179 800 13%
Indian snack foods 288 38% 586 0-2000 1000 33%
Popcorn 31 84% 837 200-1500 800 39%
Potato crisps 64 39% 691 359-1090 580 14%
Snack packs 33 67% 818 40-2300 800 36%
Totals 4218 36%       16%

Table 3: Comparable products with highest and lowest salt content

Table 3. Examples of lowest and highest sodium
products of some of the key food categories
Food category Lowest levels
sodium products
Highest levels
sodium products
Brand Name Product Name Sodium (mg / 100g) Brand Name Product Name Sodium
(mg / 100g)
Bread and bakery products
Biscuits, plain dry Mc Vitie’s Mc Vitie’s Marie 300 Kraft Kraft Ritz Crackers Krekers 670
Biscuits, sweet filled Karachi Bakery Karachi Bakery Chand Biscuits 14 Cadbury Cadbury Oreo Choco Creme 472
Biscuits, sweet unfilled Karachi Bakery Karachi’s Bakery Pure Vegetarian Fruit Biscuits 6 Tiffany Tiffany Digestive Light Natural Wheat Biscuits 701
Other bread – Papad Arul Arul Appalam 2 777 Sri Ganeshram’s 777 Brand Appalam 4000
White bread Modern Family Modern Family Shakti White Sandwich Bread 440 Harvest Harvest Gold White Bread 497
Cakes Cogon Cogon Tropical Fruit Flavoured Pudding 40 Cakees Cakees Plum Cake Extra Rich 1600
Cereal and grain products
Breakfast cereals Bambino Bambino Roasted Vermicelli 0 Gits Gits Rava Dosai Mix 2110
Ready to eat breakfast cereal Waitrose Waitrose Seriously Nutty Maple & Mixed Nut Crisp 10 Kellogg’s Kellogg’s Corn Flakes With Real Almond & Honey 650
Cereal and nut based bars Heartland Heartland Organic Oatsli Orange & Coconut Cereal Bar 0 Natural’s Natural’s Almond Treat Energy Bar 75
Plain Noodles Dragon Dragon Super Special Quality Instant Noodle Pack 21 Blue Dragon Blue Dragon Express Instant Noodles 600
Instant Noodles Koka Koka Noodles Spicy Shrimp Flavour 281 Knorr Knorr Soupy Noodles Yummy Chicken 2486
Filled/flavoured pasta Essential Waitrose Essential Waitrose Short Cut Spaghetti In Tomato Sauce 170 Gowardhan Gowardhan Go Natural Cheese Shredded Italian Pasta 1000
Rice Waitrose Waitrose A Handful Of Sushi Rice 0 Lal Qilla Lal Qilla The Original Basmati Rice Traditional Special Old Malai 38
Convenience foods
Ready meals MTR MTR Kesar Suji Halwa Kesar Bhath Tasty Delights Ready To Eat 0 Maiyas Maiyas Kharabath Instant mix 1400
Canned Soup Heinz Heinz Cream of Tomato Soup With A Twist of Chilli  200 Sil Sil Tomato Soup La Tomatina 501
Soup Batchelors Batchelors Slim A Soup Golden Vegetable 180 Knorr Knorr Chinese Hot & Sour Veg Soup 5378
Dairy and dairy alternatives
Cheese, hard Go Go Cheese Wedges Soft & Creamy 152 Dodoni Dodoni Feta 1095
Cheese, soft Lemnos Lemnos Sweet Chilli Cream Cheese 457 Milky Mist Milky Mist Premium Cheese Spread Garlic 1520
Cheese, processed Amul Amul Cheese Spread Punchy Pepper 840 Britannia Britannia Slimz Cheesy Slices 1730
Paneer Milky Mist Milky Mist Paneer 50 Gowardhan Gowardhan Fresh Paneer Classic Block 400
Cream Amul Amul Fresh Cream 34 Blue Bird Blue Bird Whipped Cream Instant Topping 614
Desserts MTR MTR Rasogolla Tasty Delights Sweets 0 Nestle Nestle Milkmaid Creations Badaam Kheer Mix 2000
Ice cream Kwality Walls Kwality Wall’s Fruit N Nut 43 Mother Dairy Mother Dairy Kulfi 180
Milk Blue Dragon Blue Dragon Coconut Milk Light 0 Waitrose Waitrose Love Life Milk Chocolate Drink 320
Fish and fish alternatives
Canned fish Oceans Secret Oceans Secret Tuna Chunks In Sunflower Oil 48 Costa’s Costa’s Sardines In Tomato 870
Other canned fish John West John West Smoked Oysters In Barbecue Sauce 550 Ayum Brand Ayam Brand Mackerel Steaks Fried With Sweet Chilli 870
Frozen fish Oceanaa Oceanaa Squid Rings Breaded 38 Sumera Sumeru Five Senses Large Prawns 887
Fruit and vegetables
Herbs and spices Colman’s Colman’s Mustard Powder 0 unknown Tify Exotic Barbeque Seasoning 8000
Jams and marmalades Stute Stute Diabetic Morello Cherry Extra Jam With Sweetener 0 Fruitoman’s Fruitoman’s Mixed Fruit 387
Nuts and seeds Dcc Delicious Dcc Delicious Cashews Dry Roasted Cream Onion 10 Wonderful Wonderful Pistachios Salt & Pepper 1100
Canned Vegetables Epicure Epicure Organic Bean Cuisine 0 American Garden American Garden Baked Beans In Tomato Sauce 384
Fresh packaged Fruit and Vegetables Essential Waitrose Essential Waitrose Small Potatoes In Water 10 Golden Brown Golden Crown Button Mushroom 1407
Fruit and vegetables
Meat alternatives Mori-Nu Silken Mori – Nu Silken Tofu Great For Entr’ees & Desserts 36 Mori-Nu Silken Mori – Nu Silken Tofu Extra Firm For Grilling Stir Fry &Sautéing 65
Frozen meat Al Kabeer Al Kabeer 6 Seekh Kabab Chicken 100 Cambay Tiger Cambay Tiger Prawn Boomerang 504
Other meat products Keya Keya Simply Fantastic Chicken Kofta 614 Sumera Sumeru Farm Fresh Back Bacon 1000
Sauces and spreads 
Asian sauces Blue Dragon Blue Dragon Szechuan Pepper Shot Bursting With Flavour 270 Pantai Pantai Light Soy Sauce 8400
Marinades Kikkoman Kikkoman Teriyaki Marinade Thick 2037 Kikkoman Kikkoman Teriyaki Marinade With Roasted Garlic 4559
Meal-based sauces Ching’s Ching’s Secret Manchurian Miracle Masala 179 Ustad Banne Nawab’s Ustad Banne Nawab’s Ethnic Hyderabadi Vegetable Biryani Masala 21218
Mustard sauces Essential Waitrose Essential Waitrose English Mustard 2020 Remia Remia Moutarde De Dijon 6600
Other sauces Prego Prego Tomato Basil Garlic Italian Sauce 350 Essential Waitrose Essential Waitrose Tartare Sauce 940
Pasta sauces Ragu Ragu’ Light Tomato & Basil Pasta Sauce 256 Barilla Barilla Olive 850
Table sauces Heinz Heinz Tomato Ketchup 700 American Garden American Garden Premium Hot Sauce 2400
Tomato paste Ayum Brand Ayam Brand Tomato Puree 184 Waitrose Waitrose Sundried Tomato Paste In Olive Oil 2030
Mayonnaise Sil Sil Orange Marmalade Wakee Orange 18 Alfa Alfa Mayonnaise 1500
Salad dressings Remia Remia Thousand Island Salad Dressing 1 Colman’s Colman’s Fresh Garden Mint Concentrate 2100
Spreads Skippy Natural Skippy Natural Creamy Peanut Butter Spread 156.2 Blue Dragon Blue Dragon Sweet Chilli Dipping Sauce Original 1700
Relishes Waitrose Waitrose Kalamata Olive & Sun – Dried Tomato Tapenade 440 Waitrose Waitrose Green Olive, Coriander & Lemon Tapenade 850
Pickles Unknown Beevi’s Prawn Pickle 1600 Sanjeev’s Kapoor Khazana Sanjeev Kapoor’s Khazana Hot Mango Pickle 5433
Chutneys Smith & Jones Smith & Jones Bhelpuri Chutney 301 Ching’s Ching’s Secret Schezwan Chutney 2266.6
Snack foods
Corn chips Haldiram’s Haldiram’s Nagpur Corn Flakes Mixture Indian Snacks Casse – Croute Indiens 58 Italo’s Italo’s Four Cheeses Flavor Baked Corn Chips 1464
Extruded snacks Win2 Win2 Magic Crunch Corn Snack With Strawberry Filling 106 Munch King Munch King Cheese Curls 1178
Indian snack foods Charlie’s Charlie’s Mora Sev 0 Jabsons Jabsons Khakhra Roasted Wheat Crisps 2000
Popcorn Popitas Popitas Salty Sensation Instant Popcorn 200 Act II Act II Golden Sizzle Instant Popcorn 1500
Potato crisps Haldiram’s Haldiram’s Halke Fulke Salted Potato Chips 359 Lorenz Lorenz Naturals Mild Paprika 1090
Snack packs Charlie’s Charlie’s Butter Chakli 40 Garden Garden Mix Farsan 2300


Figure 1: Data analysis


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